Theory of Change and Logic Model for New Hope for Youth
1. Organizational Mission
New Hope for Youth (NHFY) is dedicated to serving and reaching out to all gang impacted as well as at-risk youth, young adults, their families and communities by means of educational programs, individual and family care and intervention, support, and resource opportunities that support a healthy, positive, and productive lifestyle.
2. Problem to Be Addressed
Many youth who have multiple risk factors as described above engage in behavior that are high risk like substance abuse, violence, predatory behavior, anti-social behaviors and negative values, de-sensitization, toward the value of life, gang membership, early sexual activity, and disconnect from school and family. They turn to gangs as a way of life that gives them financial means and a support system and sense of belonging. (Reference: Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs, by James C. Howell, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Juvenile Justice Bulletin, December 2010.)
3. Underlying Cause of the Problem
Youth living in low-income neighborhoods may face multiple risk factors: homelessness, high rate of gang recruitment, violence/trauma, incarceration/recidivism, teen pregnancy, lack of education, poverty, broken families, lack of parental supervision or guidance, substance abuse, mental health issues, unemployment and/or lack of employable skills. They are likely to engage in behavior that are high risk like substance abuse, violence, predatory behavior, anti-social behaviors and negative values, de-sensitization, toward the value of life, gang membership, early sexual activity, and disconnect from school and family. They turn to gangs as a way of life that gives them financial means and a support system and sense of belonging. (Reference: Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs, by James C. Howell, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Juvenile Justice Bulletin, December 2010.), Substance Use and Delinquent Behavior Among Serious Adolescent Offenders, Edward P. Mulvey, Carol A. Schubert, and Laurie Chassin, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Juvenile Justice Bulletin, December 2010.),
5. Impact We Want to Achieve
Goal: To equip At Risk, High Risk, Gang-Impacted and Gang-Intentional Youth ages 13-24 years old both Male and Female with the tools to navigate him/herself out of the gang life and mindset, high risk behaviors, and become a productive member of society.
Other impact NHFY strives to create with this population of youth and young adults through our approach to care, support, and intervention include the following sample of process and outcome measures:
Process Objective: Conduct Outreach where youth spend time and get to know youth and establish connection leading to relationship of trust;
Process Objective: Conduct a home visit to meet parents and assess the home and environmental risk factors of home and neighborhood;
Process Objective: Conduct a Intake/Assessment process to identify immediate needs, stressors, areas of strength and vulnerability, youth interests and areas of motivation, perspective on life, and available resources.
Process Objective: With youth create an Individual Service Plan identifying youth interests and talents and support youth in self-reflection that leads to developing short-term and long-term goals such as job, education and family unification, successful probation completion, etc.
Process Objective: Engage youth in Pro-social Activities and learning using such evidenced-based and informer curriculum as; Joven Noble and Xichantli Curriculum and ““Criminal & Addictive Thinking” module of New Directions Curriculum.
Outcome Objective: As a result of program services, youth clients will establish a trusting/healthy relationship with NHFY staff and other caring adults as measured by the NHFY Client Satisfaction Survey.
Outcome Objective: As a result of program services, of youth clients will acknowledge the consequences of their high risk behavior, and reduce those high risk behaviors.
Outcome Objective: As a result of program services, of youth clients will shift their mindset toward living a healthier life style by making better choices as measured by the NHFY Client Satisfaction Survey.
Outcome Objective: As a result of the program services, of youth clients who have previously offended will not re-offend, while in NHFY Program, and for 6month after leaving program.
Outcome Objective: As a result of the program services, of youth clients with chronic school absenteeism will improve their attendance as measured by school attendance reports.
Outcome Objective: As a result of the program services, of Out of School Youth (OSY) clients will re-enroll in school, employment training or become employed.
6. Our work will be at the following depth or level
NHFY is working at the level of Empowerment; that is, delivering needed services while also positively changing the capacity of our youth clients and young adults through positive youth development services with leadership by an experienced and trained staff. NHFY also empowers its youth and young adult clients toward positive personal development through the various program components.
7. Target groups/structures to be impacted
NHFY’s service delivery model seeks to have a healing and therapeutic impacts with individual youth and young adult clients, their families, and work with clients from key bureaucracies as Schools, the Juvenile Justice System including the Courts and Probation Department.
8. We Will Reach/Influence/Impact the Target Groups/Structures
NHFY impacts the school system by providing them with additional resources available to use with students requiring disciplinary measures prior to suspension. Such services include home visits to engage parents, assessments of student’s needs, one-on-one mentoring, group mediations, referral to other agencies and resources to meet needs of youth and their families, reducing the level of truancy.
NHFY further impacts the schools by assisting them in creating a safer school climate and campus through individual and group mediations, by providing group workshops focusing on developing pro-social skills such as conflict resolution, better decision-making, healthy relationships and avoidance of substance abuse. The impact has been in improving disciplinary policies and procedures resulting in less suspensions, as well as reconnecting Out of School Youth back into school.
Courts and Juvenile Justice/Probation:
NHFY impacts the courts by reducing the recidivism by youth and young adult offenders. One service that contributes to that impact is assisting youthful offenders with jobs so that they no longer are involved in thefts/burglaries.
NHFY impacts the Probation Department by partnering with probation officers in case management intervention, Individual Coaching, Mentoring and Intervening, as well as; with referrals to anger management classes and mental health services for trauma.
NHFY also serves as a intermediate helping probation officers and offending youth/young adult offenders on probation and their families to improve their relationships resulting in increased communication and reporting to probation officers, higher completion by EMP program, higher attendance at court appearances, and reduction in drug/alcohol use resulting in improved drug test results.
9. Tools or Processes Needed to Impact/Influence Target Groups
NHFY uses evidence-based practices and programs in delivering services to youth and young adult clients. These include the following:
Street Outreach in which NHFY staff go out into the “hot spot” areas to engage the target population. (Reference Evidenced-based/Informed Practice, footnote)
Conduct Prosocial Activities using Joven Noble, Xinachtli & “Criminal & Addictive Thinking” curriculum. (Reference Evidenced-based/Informed Practice, footnote)
Visiting Youth client’s home to meet parents and other family members and assess strengths, needs and risk factors. (Reference Evidenced-based/Informed Practice, footnote)
Conduct Intake and Assessment using Motivational Interviewing techniques to identify prior traumas and how to address these; identify immediate needs, interests, and talents of youth.
Develop with the youth the Individual Service Plan.
Implement Individual service plans with monitoring by the Case Manager: individual sessions, phone calls, referrals to outside resources, transporting to appointments, communication with wrap around team of other agency contacts (probation, school staff, other CBOs). (Reference Evidenced-based/Informed Practice, footnote)
Engage youth/young adult clients in Pro-Social Activities that are conducted throughout the year to maintain engagement, and continue building trusting relationships.
(Reference Research: 1) BEST Practice to Address Community Gang Problems, OJJDP Comprehensive Gang Model, National Gang Center, Second Edition, October 2010. 2) Findings From the Evaluation of OJJDP’s Gang Reduction Program by Meagan Cahill and David Hayeslip, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Juvenile Justice Bulletin, December 2010, Effective Case Management Author: Mark Carey, The Carey Group, Editor: Madeline M. Carter, Center for Effective Public Policy, 2010.
10. The resources – financial, knowledge, skills, time – needed to employ these tools and processes to effectively influence the target groups
With four years of history as an incorporated, non-profit organization, NHFY has relied heavily on volunteers and staff committed to accomplishing the mission of the organization. Many hours are added to the normal work week by staff in order to meet the needs of youth/young adult clients—many times “after hours” and on weekends. NHFY is building the financial resources to support the continuous improvement of its programs and services and sustain the level of effort without leading to burnout by staff and volunteers.
Staff are selected based on their own life experience and knowledge of the gang lifestyle and prison systems. These are individuals who have experienced and worked toward personal transformation and now leading productive lives. Additional knowledge is provided through training on such evidence-based practices as Motivational Interviewing, trauma-informed services, Cognitive Behavioral Interventions/Therapy, specialized curriculum such as Joven Noble, Xichantli, “Criminal Addictive Thinking,” and “Thinking for a Change.”
NHFY provides approximately 200 to 300 hours per youth over the period of a year with dosage aimed at frequent contact minimally on a twice a week basis, typically making daily contact and by the end of the year transitioning to less frequent contact.
11. The resources currently available are:
NHFY has a trained staff of eight individuals with life experience reflecting the challenges the youth NHFY serves are facing. In addition, the agency contracts with various partners including the City and local school districts on a fee for service basis to serve youth in identified “hot spot” areas with behavioral indicators to provide specific intervention services. In addition, NHFY has begun reaching out to potential funders soliciting support for core operations and programs. At present, NHFY has grants from the Castellano Foundation and a small grant from the Mayor of City of San Jose office. NHFY has its office at Conxión, which provides additional resources to clients for referral if needed. The agency also has the support of five consistent volunteers and the support of a local church, as well as working relationships with other CBOs such as Catholic Charities and Crossroad Food Bank, the Opportunity Youth Academy and Gardener Family Care. It has working relationships with the local police department and the County District Attorney’s office, as well as Probation Department that facilitates the work with its clients.
12. We can capitalize on the resources of people who have or are involved in the issue or problem. The resources we need to develop or acquire are the following:
a. NHFY plans to expand its partnership with the County seeking contracts or participating in grants to serve mutual clients.
b. We plan to expand our relationships with the local school districts to include San Jose Unified School District and the Santa Clara County Office of Education Alternative Schools.
c. We are identifying additional foundations to seek grants as well and the business community.
d. NHFY needs to acquire two more vehicles for the street outreach, case management and pro-social activities. We also plan to budget for printers with more capacity, and laptops for staff to increase efficiency in data collection.
e. We would like to continue the professional development to implement the New Direction curriculum for previous offenders, beginning with the “Criminal Thinking” module. We will need additional resources to purchase the full program and possible training.
f. We would like to acquire our own office space in the future.
13. Others working in the field are as follows:
City of San Jose and it’s twenty-one BEST-funded agencies are collaborators in this work along with the City of San Jose various departments, the County Departments, Law Enforcement and Probation Department who interact with these youth, and the local Schools Districts.
14. We see the potential for partnerships and the skills and resources that must come from others as follows:
a. Continued improvements to our capacity in data collection—i.e. technology in the hands of our staff;
b. Funds to have the services of an evaluation coach to advise in our program evaluation design;
c. Continued professional development of staff through the Community of Learning and other training opportunities.
15. We will use the following to measure achievements/impact and to monitor progress:
a. Client Surveys (Satisfaction and Outcome Measures)
b. City Performance Reporting System – i.e. Actual Units of Service; Quarterly reports with financial information and narrative.
c. Client services outcome studies to document change process and effectives of services.